Fragments of Stained Glass. By Claire Nicolas White. Mercury House. 230 pages. $18.95.
Claire Nicolas White, a distinguished poet, was born into an artistic family and married into another, with all the concomitant creativity, iconoclasm, and instability. The book is less a biography than a reverie, a fragmented chronicle of life in Europe and America over the last six decades. It tells of a world that no longer exists as it did before World War II and one which the present generation probably will never be able to understand thoroughly.
Joep Nicolas, Whites father, was an eminent Dutch stained-glass artist (hence the books title) who immigrated to America just before World War II. Her husband, Robert White, a sculptor, is the grandson of Stanford White, the architect, whose exuberant public life created difficulties for the family.
She describes well the pain, inconvenience, and dislocation of the European exile community in New York during the war. Life was hard (but not too hard) for those who were able to flee to America in the wake of Nazism. The young people were able to attend good schools and colleges that enabled them to be successful after the war, either in America or (if they chose to return) in Europe.
Claire Whites memories are both nostalgic and unvarnished in their clarity. She looks at parents, family, and husband unsparingly, which lends credibility to her account. The book lacks the sappiness of most personal memoirs and has an edge that is sometimes disconcerting. Her interactions with people like Aldous Huxley, a collateral relative, give a new perspective on that important literary figure.
Fragments of Stained Glass is a book in which Roman Catholicism is integral but rarely stated specifically. It is inseparable from the fabric or, one might say, the matrix of the stained glass.
Claire White, who came to America with little English, has mastered it. Hers is a book for all seasons, enhanced by subtle humor and a rare sense of tranquility and forgiveness.
- Aaron W. Godfrey
Most Ancient of All Splendors. By Johann Moser. Sophia Institute Press. 94 pages. $14.95.
In a lecture originally delivered in the 1970s, John Wain lambasted a type of poetry still prevalent today: The years since 1960 have seen a mass turning-away from the notion of poetry as an art that [has] something in common with music, and towards a more or less improvisatory style which aims at one of two objectives: either to simulate the ravings of a drug-addict, or to inculcate very simple social messages. Wain added that this poetry flourishes better at poetry readings than on the printed page, being written not for those who wish to read, and ponder, and reread, but for those who need each others company in a crowded space and a poet up on the platform dealing with the latest important experience . Wains assessment is accurate to a point; what he failed to mention is that we are not actually told about important experiences, but about the insignificance of man. Droning about the mean-inglessness of it all when not joylessly celebrating the joys of lubricity, the architects of this present darkness in American poetry share with the reading public a peculiar gospel, having come that we might have dullness and ennui, and have them abundantly.
Turning from the poetic ash-heap, its a pleasure to encounter Johann Mosers first poetry collection, Most Ancient of All Splendors. Here is poetry that celebrates the enduring, the tragic, and the ennobling in culture, and that breathes with moral imagination. Mosers poems are carefully crafted vessels: beautiful artifacts of language. As the collections editor writes, each poem forms an integral, self-contained, and cohesive structure. In medieval terms, [Moser] seeks to achieve in each of his poems a splendor formae a radiance of formal unity.
The Christian (and specifically Catholic) vision of man held by Moser enables him poetically to declare at once the glory of humanity and its fallenness. These tendencies are tempered by an emphasis on celebration. Where T.S. Eliot would write of Gerontions waiting for death, dreaming with his dry brain in a dry season of being whirled in fractured atoms beyond the circuit of the shuddering Bear, Mosers Sheba (in Testament of Sheba) speaks of a cosmos in which God rides His green-bright Dolphin / Through planetary seas and astral oceans and where Tabernacles of the stars / Whirl in ancient ecstasy across the night.
The speakers in each poem, whether Moser, an unknown persona, or various identified personages, affirm a world of order and transcendent purpose. I am the term; I am the boundary stone, says the Church (in Terminus: Concedo Nulli). I concede, I have conceded, ground to none.
Elsewhere in Most Ancient of All Splendors are other poems well worth reading, written in a variety of traditional forms and employing poetic diction suitable to the poets intent. Especially worthwhile is the gentle Galileo: A Letter to His Daughter, with its view of the ordered universe as resembling a great dance, reminiscent of the vision of C.S. Lewis. Also notable is Homage to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in effect a stated hope and prayer for a spiritually renewed Russia.
- James E. Person Jr.
John Ireland and the American Catholic Church. By Marvin R. O'Connell. Minnesota Historical Society Press. 610 pages. $27.50.
John Ireland became the third Bishop of St. Paul in 1884. Four years later, when the see was raised to metropolitan status, he became its first Archbishop. What sort of man was this major figure in American Catholic history? Whatever favorable descriptives might be brought forward and there are many saintly is not one that naturally suggests itself. He was certainly an essentially good man, walking unwaveringly in the ways of an iron-willed religious faith. But as far as our limited vision allows us to say, there seems to have been something missing. And that something, I suspect, was a sufficiently large contemplative component to his life. Irelands life was chiefly characterized by a too steady and unmitigated embroilment in public affairs. The world was too much with him, and that meant, of course, the rambunctious, progress-obsessed world of late 19th-century America. It was a time when growth was explosive, and altogether too many things appeared possible.
At a time when American Catholics were aligning themselves with the Democratic Party, Ireland was a staunch, life-long Republican and was quite close to Presidents McKinley and (Teddy) Roosevelt. Ireland was a consummate politician, both inside and outside the Church. His machinations in the realm of ecclesiastical politics are as intriguing as they are at times disconcerting. He was naturally combative, and in his dealings with certain of his peers in the hierarchy, for example, he had a way of too easily taking opponents for enemies. Given his warrior mentality, he could be a ruthless antagonist. The problem with this approach is that it tends to make the ultimate consideration not charity, but victory.
Ireland has been blessed in his biographers. Msgr. James M. Reardons The Catholic Church in the Diocese of St. Paul, published in 1952, contained a 222-page chapter on Ireland which constituted in itself almost a full-fledged biography. The following year Fr. James H. Moynihans Life of Archbishop John Ireland was published. Both are reliable sources, though the latter is oddly organized and tends at times toward hagiography. Now we have available truly a masterwork of biography in Marvin R. OConnells John Ireland and the American Catholic Church. Fr. OConnell, a professor of history at Notre Dame, is himself a native Minnesotan and a priest of the Archdiocese of St. Paul.
Contemporary biographers evince a propensity for producing large, ungainly tomes whose organization is fractured and whose style is ponderous works decidedly short on art. This is emphatically not the case with OConnells biography of Ireland. His labors of research and writing have met with wonderful success, giving us a gem of scholarship which reads like a novel. The book is one of the best biographies written in this country in recent years.
- D.Q. McInerny
The Believers. By Janice Holt Giles. University Press of Kentucky. 214 pages. $9.
Oh, the evil that is done in the name of piety! Rebecca Coopers anguished cry announces the theme of this superb novel (first published in 1957 and now reissued) that explores the elements of Shaker religiosity in early 19th-century Kentucky. Swept up in the spiritual awakening that convulses the region, Rebeccas husband, Richard, shivers with the ecstasies of brush-arbor revivalism. When this fever cools, he finds fresh inspiration in the gospel expounded by Shaker missionaries who are scouting the frontier in search of recruits. Their world-blasting asceticism repels Rebecca, but for Richards sake, she muffles her aversion and joins him at the newly established Shaker community at South Union, near Bowling Green. Rebecca abhors the Shakers Manichaean contempt for the physical world, a revulsion so strong that it compels them to condemn procreation.
Although Janice Holt Giles rejects the sentimental notion of Shakers as simply kindly and benevolent folk who devoted themselves mainly to crafting exquisite furniture, she does not paint them in unrelievedly gloomy hues. In the Foreword she confesses her great respect for them; they were, she avers, a gentle, dedicated, innocent people. But in this innocence lies the rub. At the end of the story Rebecca, long since departed from the Shaker utopia, reflects on her experiences with the Believers. The most devoted of them were good people, as they saw goodness, she recalls. My quarrel with them was that their conception of goodness made no allowance for any other mans and that, I felt, was tyranny. It was the tyranny of innocence, but I saw evil come of it, exactly as evil comes of all tyranny, for innocence is no guarantor of goodness.
Masks of Satan: The Demonic in History. By Christopher Nugent. Christian Classics. 216 pages. $14.95.
The Father of Lies is the Prince of Appearances, Christopher Nugent declares in defining the governing idea of Masks of Satan. The devil of popular imagination the cartoonish figure of cloven hoofs, forked tail, and obscene leer does not stalk these pages. In wrestling with the question of evil, Nugent identifies the masks Satan has donned in the course of Western civilization from the ancient Greeks to Hebrews to the 20th century, from Dionysus, inspirer of fiendish ecstasy, to the demonocracy foisted upon the world by Hitler and the Nazis.
Nugent reduces Satans disguises to three essential types. The first mask of Satan, he contends, is that of the Rebel who defies God and curses the sway of heaven. In another guise, Satan appears as an elemental compound of Narcissism and Nihilism. Finally, there are the sacraments of Satan: any fetish from phallicism to what the old world called filthy lucre. Masks of Satan will disappoint those who dote on sensationalism, for Nugent believes that the demonic is neither exotic nor remote; it is very near. It is of men rather than monsters, and we have seen the horrors of historical fact exceed the vilest horrors of gothic fantasy. Truth is more frightening than fiction.
Nugent does not leave the last word to the powers of maleficence; it goes instead to the antidote to evil the divine love that breathes the current of life into the Cosmos. He concludes his engaging study on a note resonant with hope: The antidote to the wolf of man is the Lamb of God.
The House of Twilight. By Yun Heung-gil. Readers International. 233 pages. $9.95.
Yun Heung-gil was wounded into brutal reality by the Korean War, a calamity that crashed upon his native land when Yun was eight years old. He witnessed the fabric of his nation rent by conflicting ideologies, Martin Holman points out in his informative Introduction to The House of Twilight, a collection of seven of Yuns short stories. And, in his literature, Holman continues, he has portrayed families ravaged by those clashes both from within and without. But because his narrators are often children, the ideological struggle is presented obliquely.
The poignance of a childs perspective appears most effectively in The Rainy Spell, where a boy is buffeted by the strife between his grandmothers. One woman has lost a son to the South Korean cause, while the other has a son who is hiding out in the mountains with a band of Communist partisans. Reminders of the savagery of war come not so much in graphic descriptions of death and. destruction something too massive for a child to grasp but in commonplace details and unobtrusive observations. In The Rainy Spell, for example, the narrator notes the villages three or four dogs that were lucky enough to survive the war. In Fuel, an account of a familys struggle to endure, the narrator, now grown to manhood, recalls the privations of the 1950s. I still cant understand why my family had to worry about fuel so constantly when we had so little to cook with it. In such unpretentious moments of revelation lies the affecting power of these stories. One understands why, as Holman mentions, Yun is regarded as one of the rising stars of Korean literature.
The Letters of Evelyn Underhill. Edited by Charles Williams. Christian Classics. 343 pages. $14.95.
He [God] expects us to behave with common sense even in regard to His graces, doesnt He? Evelyn Underhill, the Anglican authority on mysticism, had a short fuse when it came to tomfoolery committed in the name of spirituality. She evinced no patience with the popular notion of mysticism as a solipsistic flight into a cloud of ineffability. Upon the scores of correspondents who sought her guidance (given freely and generously, as these letters, first published in 1943, indicate), she pressed an unsentimental realism that often dismayed those inflamed with spiritual fevers. Move away from the vivid, passionately rapturous type of reaction, she cautions one neophyte. She condemned all psychic tricks, gimmicks, and ploys that promised a shortcut to union with the divine. I think it is better, really, she urged, to teach at once the hard and wholesome doctrine that the attitude of adoration and humility is what matters and that spiritual realization is secondary to this, and can only be prepared for, not obtained, by our deliberate conscious effort.
Underhill deprecated the kind of spiritual loftiness that tempts an ardent seeker to disdain less advanced believers. She bluntly reminded such elitists of the inner life that they belonged to the body of Christ and were bound irrefragably to the most prosaic of Christs followers. Enter into the interests of others, however twaddley, she commanded a correspondent. Her firm sacramentalism God coming into our souls by means of humblest accidents demanded that the quest for spiritual ecstasy be rooted in quotidian realities.