The Moral Question of Abortion. By Stephen Schwarz. Loyola University Press. 303 pages. $15.95.
Stephen Schwarz has produced a painstakingly researched statement of the prolife position. Its an essential, long-awaited primer.
He explores the core issue in the abortion controversy: When does human life begin? He distinguishes function from being and differentiates that which is merely genetically human (a sperm cell, an unfertilized ovum, or, for that matter, a hangnail) from the newly created, biologically human zygote. In union, sperm and egg are each at the end of their individual existence; they arent renewed but transformed into a single unique being. A more radical break can hardly be imagined than that between something at the end of its existence and another being that somehow comes from it, but is at the beginning of its existence.
Schwarz deals with every objection put forth by abortion apologists, including one unfamiliar to many prolifers. Pro-abortionists are fond of citing the molar pregnancy. All this proves, Schwarz replies is that not all cases of biological fertilization represent the conception of a new person. It does nothing to negate the reality of the vast majority that do. (Indeed, the political infeasibility of designating personhood at implantation becomes increasingly evident in light of conflicts arising over the disposition of embryos conceived in vitro though not yet implanted. In one such case, Davis v. Davis, a Tennessee judge ruled that the embryos at issue are children meriting full protection of the state.)
Schwarzs thesis is especially appropriate for those who feel there is no way to reconcile a preborns right to life with the right to privacy of ones unwilling mother. Schwarz goes mano a mano with Judith Jarvis Thomsons no duty to sustain argument. In Roe v. Wade, Justice Blackmun noted that if the fetus is a legal person, the right to abortion of course collapses. But Thomson, while allowing that the fetus is worthy of protection from assault by anyone other than ones mother and her physician, contends that in an abortion context the mothers right to privacy overrides her preborns right to life, just as a homeowner may eject an unwanted intruder. Schwarz refutes this argument by demonstrating that abortion is not really the expulsion of a trespasser, but a violent act resulting in death. Privacy is not license to kill. Moreover, the common law has long regarded the relationship between parent and child as more compelling than the parents claim to privacy. (Curiously, privacy coupled with property rights used to be routinely invoked as a barrier against compulsory desegregation. See Palmer v. Thompson, where Jackson, Mississippi, sought to resist court-ordered integration by closing four public swimming pools while leasing a fifth to the private YMCA.)
Ironically, in dealing with rape and incest, Thomson is shown to agree with prolifers who demand no exception: Surely the question whether you have a right to life shouldnt turn on whether or not you are the product of a rape.
The Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, thereafter incorporated in the 14th, insures a valid right to privacy, defined as the right to be secure in ones person (i.e., physical body). Unfortunately, this provision has been vitiated in support of an abortion right. Yet, Schwarz applies this protection to the preborn, concluding that abortion violates not only the preborn childs right to life, but his or her privacy. In balancing identical claims, a court must determine which party is threatened with the greater harm. Pregnancy infringes on a womans privacy for nine months, while abortion is a permanent denial of her babys. While this reasoning may strike prolifers as unconventional, the more often personhood attributes are legally upheld for the preborn e.g., when a judge orders a pregnant drug addict isolated from other inmates out of concern far the welfare of her child in utero the greater is the precedent for the preborns right to life.
Its refreshing that Schwarz endorses judicial activism in defense of the preborn. But a fetal-personhood resolution isnt likely to emanate from the conservative Rehnquist court, which is deferential to state prerogative rather than to its duty as a civil-rights institution. Justice Stevens once observed that if theres a basis for advancing protections to the preborn, the permissibility of terminating the life of the fetus could scarcely be left to the will of state legislatures.
I strongly recommend this book. There are, however, areas where I would press for sharper distinctions. Schwarz considers abortion murder. The correct term is homicide, for murder denotes malicious intent or callous disregard for life. This may be the case in certain abortions, but surely not in all. Such difficulties notwithstanding, Schwarz has written an excellent book which should be frequently referred to for the wealth of research it contains.
- Stephen Settle
Isle of the Saints: Monastic Settlement and Christian Community in Early Ireland. By Lisa M. Bitel. Corneal University Press. 268 pages. $28.95.
One delight of a visit to Ireland is the chance to see monastic ruins around the countryside. On islands off the Irish coast there are tiny churches and monastic cells dating back to the Dark Ages. Built of huge stone blocks, some of the churches look strong enough to last another thousand years at least. On the mainland you can tramp around farm buildings, over stiles, and through cow pastures to reach sturdy medieval ruins.
Lisa Bitels Isle of the Saints describes how monks lived in some of the old buildings from 800 to 1200. While well-written and conveying much valuable information, her account is incomplete. It says little, for example, about monastic scholarship and almost nothing about the art that made the Book of Kells and other beautiful works.
Bitel, whose academic specialty is medieval history, is interested in the sociology of monastic life: how the monks organized their communities and how they dealt with lay people and Irish kings or warlords. She places heavy stress on status, power, and methods of controlling the laity.
Her book has both the strengths and weaknesses of a historical-sociological approach. One strength is a genuine effort to be objective. Bitel says much about the down side of monastic life, but she is not one-sided. While she reports that celibacy was not universally practiced and suggests that some abbots were succeeded by their sons, she does not indulge in tiresome Freudian analysis. Some monks, she notes, were warriors who attacked rival monasteries; yet many were peacemakers.
Bitels matter-of-fact reporting may be a healthy corrective for Catholics and others who have too romantic a view of monasticism. We are, after all, speaking of human beings. Many monastic communities, starting out with strict rules and genuine poverty, grew large and prosperous. Manual labor often shifted from the monks themselves to tenant farmers, and many monks were too concerned with property expansion and fees. Veneration of relics too easily led to superstitions and a view of religion as magical. Many of the famous abbots, revered as Irish saints, reportedly cursed their enemies and caused them great harm.
While paying ample attention to the monks foibles and sins, Bitel also notes their efforts to live up to high ideals. They took in handicapped and abandoned children; they sheltered and honored lepers; and poor communities fed visitors even when the monks themselves did not have enough to eat.
A weakness of the sociological approach is the tendency to overemphasize self-interest. The terms religious elite and religious professionals are used to excess, and Bitels discussion of monastic hospitality seems skewed. Did monks really host each other primarily to act out and affirm their place in the hierarchy of monastic communities? Rejecting food may have provided the monks with another means of identifying themselves as better than and apart from the laity, but it is fair to ask whether that was the chief motive for fast and abstinence.
Here, as elsewhere, Bitel may suffer from an inability to view matters from the inside. In her Preface she says, I began this book with one question: Why did the Christians of early Ireland support a class of religious professionals devoted to the veneration of dead holy men and women? The question seems slightly off-center. Certainly the monks had great reverence for their founding saints, yet men entered monasteries primarily to worship God and find salvation and sanctification. The saints were guides and models, not ends in themselves.
Bitel has done an enormous amount of research in a difficult area of scholarship. In judging motives and attitudes, however, she is less than reliable.
- Mary Meehan
Drawing the Line: Life, Death, and Ethical Choices in an American Hospital. By Samuel Gorovitz. Oxford University Press. 195 pages. $19.95.
Samuel Gorovitz, a philosopher specializing in bioethical issues, spent seven weeks at Beth Israel Hospital in the Boston area, watching events unfold, and grappling with the ethical issues they posed. As Visiting Scholar in Residence or (unofficially) Authorized Snoop and Irritant-at-Large he had free rein of one of the nations most prestigious teaching hospitals in order better to ponder the ethical dilemmas of modern medicine. The issue is: What, if anything, did he learn from his experience?
Apparently he learned very little. He remarks that the federal governments moratorium on research involving in vitro fertilization has been a great hindrance to medical progress, an example of how the heavy hand of political cowardice [can] stifle the quest for greater understanding of fundamental biological processes. He observes that there is no reason to oppose fetal research on ethical grounds, provided it satisfies the relevant guidelines [content unspecified] .The question is less an ethical than a political one. He complains that the Supreme Courts modification of Roe v. Wade in the 1989 Webster case will lead to legislative chaos i.e., to different state legislatures making different moral and prudential judgments.
Views such as these owe nothing to Gorovitzs visit to Beth Israel. They derive in part from a utilitarian-technocratic outlook, and in part from solidarity with fellow professionals against groups like the Boston Irish, of whose political power Gorovitz frequently complains. The rights and wrongs of abortion, of fetal research, and of in vitro fertilization (with or without accompanying destruction of pre-embryonic life) need to be debated, not settled by obiter dicta interspersed in an account of a hospital visit.
Can theory then learn nothing from practice? Are we forced into the position of the sort of Catholic moral theologian who boasts of never having heard a confession? On the contrary, practice can inform theory, and can do so in at least two ways.
First, practice makes us aware of issues. If there is anyone who regards abortion as merely an unpleasant bit of elective surgery, the wrenching accounts of life and death in abortion clinics provided by women like Magda Denes and Sallie Tisdale are the next best thing to an experience I would not wish on anyone. But the issues, when, if ever, abortion is justified and what might be the appropriate scheme of legal regulation, need to be settled in the head and not in the guts.
Second, we can draw a more abstract set of lessons from the structure and texture of moral experience. Human decisions are complex and messy; moral and non-moral considerations enter into them in no particular order. Thus one should not expect clear rules covering every situation e.g., at what point to cease the attempt to prolong a patients life. Prudence here and everywhere is the most necessary of virtues.
But the complexity of moral choice also teaches another lesson. In view of the multitude of considerations that bear on a single choice, and the impossibility of finding a common measure by which their force can be assessed, do whats best is seldom if ever appropriate moral advice. Firm, possibly even exceptionless, rules and principles are therefore necessary, not as substitutes for prudence but as guides to it. How much structure and how much leeway is required in moral reasoning is a question to which there is no general answer.
Gorovitz concludes his book by emphasizing the many elements of uncertainty in moral judgment. It is these uncertainties that make it both necessary and so very difficult to draw the lines in each decision about a complex and ethically challenging case. And so, he reasons, each of us faces the need, over and over again, to decide how far to go in dealing with various dimensions of our lives.
But it is also necessary, on at least some occasions, to take a firm stand against evil. Otherwise, all his talk about uncertainty provides nothing but a screen of euphemisms, behind which those who are certain of their objectives, or overcome by their passions, can commit enormous wrongs.
- Philip E. Devine